News from Other Newspapers

Mitchell Shot at Holly Springs

Daily Missouri Observer, February 10, 1854
Day before yesterday, Major C. H. Starke, S. A. Leake, Esq., Dr. Pride, and F. A. Payne, constable, who started in pursuit of the desperado, Mitchell, who so dreadfully stabbed Dr. Leake, of __sherville, in this county, came up with him a few miles this side of Holly Springs. He turned round and fled, but his horse being almost broken down, they overtook him as he rode into the town. Mitchell had a bowie knife in his hand, and swore that no person should take him. His pursuers called to some persons in the street to arrest him, telling them he was a murderer. Some person caught hold of his horse, when Major Starke rode up and shot him in the side with a shot gun. He died soon afterwards from the wounds inflicted. Our informant, Wm. T. Avery, who came in from Holly Springs last night, says the sympathies of the people are entirely with Major Starke, but did not learn before leaving whether or not he had been arrested. - [Memphis Eagle, 1st.

Mike Fannin Killed

The State Gazette [TX], June 10, 1854
We copy from the Holly Springs (Miss.) Banner, the following account of the death of Mike Fannin, who resided for some years in Austin, merely remarking that the statement of his being a brother of Fannin, who was massacred at Goliad, is a mistake. A gentleman who came passenger on the stage yesterday from Aberdeen, reports a most horrible affair which occured there on Saturday last. The circumstances related are as follows: Col. M. J. bunch and a Mr. Finnin[sic], who was a sportsman, but still regarded as a clever man amongst gentleman, had been engaged at cards. Fannin had won everything Bunch had, his money, horse and buggy and negro boy. Bunch asked some time to raise money to redeem his lost property, and at the expiration of the time, Fannin called for a settlement, when Bunch told him he would pay him all he owed him at four o'clock next day. In the mean time, Bunch borrowed a shot-gun, saying he was going birding. The next day Fannin was on his way to Burch's[sic] office when some of the citizens advised him not to go there, that there would be a difficulty. He replied that he and Bunch were friendly, and walked on to B's. office. He found the door locked, and after knocking far admittance some time, concluded to leave and started down the steps from B's. office, which is in the second story of some building oppsite Herondon's Tavern. Fannin had got nearly down the step when Bunch came out and hailed him. Fannin turned his face, when Bunch fired with the double-barreled gun he had borrowed, hitting F. with five buckshot in the face. Fannin fell immediately. Bunch fired again, hitting Fannin in the abdomen with several shot. He then ran down the steps and beat Fannin with the gun until it was broken to pieces. The above are the circumstances substantially, as related. If the facts as stated above are true, it is one of the most cold blooded murders ever committed in the annals of Mississippi. Fannin is said to have served as an officer in the Texan revolution, and also in the late Mexican war; and was a brother of the celebrated Fannin who fell at the Fannin Massacre. Col. Bunch had been arrested and was still in Aberdeen.

Horrible Murder of a Buffalonian in Mississippi

The Daily Ohio Statesman, June 19, 1858
Marshal Morin, proprietor of the National Hotel, Holly Springs, Mississippi, was killed in the street in that place on the 4th by R. J. and R. Malone. Ten or a dozen shots were fired between the parties. The Herald, of that town, says such a melancholy affair had not occurred there for many years.

The Daily Ohio Statesman, June 23, 1858
[From the Buffalo Express
Marshall R. Morin, formerly a resident of this city, was brutally and cowardly murdered at Holly springs, Mississippi on Saturday, June 5th, by a man named R. J. Malone. A niece of Malone, to whom M. Morin, was paying his addresses, had been fatally slandered, and Mr. Morin, believing it his duty to chastise the perpetrator, applied to Malone to act as his friend in the transaction. Malone consented but begged that the matter might be put off for 24 hours, to which Mr. Morin consented. In the meantime, Malone busied himself in circulating the most aggravated slanders against his own niece, with a view of exciting, as much as possible, the public indignation against Morin. Before the 24 hours elapsed, Morin determined to wait no longer, but called on Malone to accompany him, who, still making professions of devoted friendship to his (Morin's) face, invited him to his counting room, where he was set upon by Malone and his son, knocked down with a crow bar, and then riddled with pistol bullets. He died in a few moments. The murderers were arrested and an examination commenced, which was postponed, and the prisoners placed in the custody of the Sheriff, who allowed them to walk at liberty about the streets, armed and equipped for more deeds of violence. There is not probability that they will be punished. Mr. Morin was a son of the agent of the Illinois Central Railroad at Memphis, and was formerly an express messenger, and afterwards clerk of a hotel, in this city. At the time of his death, he was the proprietor of a hotel in Holly Springs. He has a brother still residing in town, and his remains were expected to arrive here last evening.

The Philadelphia Inquirer, Oct 4, 1862
Wm. G. Hewes, an old citizen of New Orleans, and a native of Boston, died at Holly Springs, Miss.

The Daily Sun [GA], July 5, 1870
The West Alabama papers contain the announcement of the death of Judge Henry Stith, a lawyer of ability, which occurred at Holly Springs, Miss., on the 13th? ult., in the 62d year of his age. Judge Stith was a native of North Carolina, but has resided in Greene and Pickens counties, Alabama, for the last forty years.

Houston [TX] Daily Union, Feb 17, 1871
Mr. John G. Barry, aged eighty-four years, nine months and sixteen days, and one of the oldest printers in the United States, was accidentally killed on Thursday evening, February 2, 1871, five miles east of Holly Springs, by falling from a wagon. He was born in Virginia, on the 17th day of April, 1786, but in early life removed to Tennessee. He began the printing business in 1899, in the Metro District Gazette office, at Nashville; and, in January, 1800, he "set up" the obituary notice of George Washington for that paper. At the expiration of his term of apprenticeship, he established a paper at Gallatin, Tenn., called the Gallatin Record; and, some years later, he published the Democrat, at Somerset, Ky., from which place he removed to Holly Springs in 1855. He became a member of the Baptist Church at Nashville in 18_1, and from that time onward his walk was such as beseems a consistent and upright professor of religion.

Fatal Difficulty

Unknown Newspaper, August 26, 1854
The Holly Springs Banner learns that a difficulty occurred on last Sunday week, about eleven miles from Holly Springs, near the Salem road, between Jacob Bowman and James Bogard. The facts as related to the Banner were that the lie was passed, when Bogard drew his knife and advanced upon Bowman, who retreated, until he picked up a paling, with which he struck Bogard several severe licks over the head, wounding him very badly. Bogard has since died of the injuries received.

Singular Development

Charleston [SC] Mercury, April 16, 1856
The Memphis Enquirer states that the name of the young man who killed the clerk of the Ohio Belle, and was subsequently drowned in the Mississippi, was Joseph Cocke, Jr., son of Joseph Cocke, Esq., who resides near Holly Springs, Miss. Young Cocke killed Sanderson at Holly Springs a few years ago, and has ever since been a fugitive from justice, having in the meantime assumed the name of "Jones," under which name he perished. His father has gone to Hickman to take the body home.

Death of Mrs. D. F. Holland at Memphis

Galveston [TX] Tri-Weekly, June 23, 1869
We copy the following from the Holly Springs (Miss.) Reporter of the 18th inst., which will be most painful intelligence to the many friends of Maj. Holland in this city:

As we go to press, we have seen a dispatch from Memphis, stating that Mrs. Bettie Holland, wife of Maj. Dick F. Holland, died in that city on Wednesday evening last. We truly condole with the afflicted husband.

Black Crimes

New Hampshire Patriot, August 23, 1871
A few nights ago between forty and fifty negroes, all armed, assembled at Holly Springs, Miss., and took a negro named Florence Washington from his dwellings and murdered him.

Recently a little girl aged ten years, living near Fulton, Ky., was missing from her home and vain search was made for her. A negro who worked for the girl's father was suspected and arrested, but escaped. He was, however, shot and recaptured. Becoming frightened, he confessed that he had committed a crime on the child under circumstances which are unfit for publication, after which he threw the body in a pond. The citizens took charge of that darkey, and neither Court nor Sheriff will be troubled with his case.


Galveston [TX] Tri-Weekly, February 14, 1872
STRATTON - In Galveston on the 6th of February, 1872, in the 3_th year of her age of general dropsy, Mrs. Mary J., wife of Major Asa E. Stratton, of Brazoria county, Texas. Memphis and Holly Springs papers please copy.

Murderers Threatened with Lynch Law

Little Rock [AR] Daily Republican, July 19, 1873
Memphis, July 18.-A special to the Appeal from Holly Springs, Miss., says that the three Williams, brothers, of Hickory Flat, charged with the murder of a negro, Zeke Heuse, of this place, are now undergoing a preliminary trial before Mayor Goodrich and Esquire Falconer. Great excitement prevails among the negroes. Over five hundred left their fields yesterday and rode into town for the avowed purpose of mobbing the prisoners in the event the court acquitted them. The sheriff summoned a large posse of citizens to protect the prisoners from the violence of the enraged mob. The Williams are brave men, and little heed the threats of bloody revenge wreaking in hate around them. The white citizens here will not hesitate to protect and defend their race.

Daily Columbus [GA] Enquirer, August 23, 1876
Another Outrage in Mississippi. Here is Willis Jones, colored, instantly killed at Holly Springs. To be sure it was done with a base ball bat, because he would not yield the field to Marsh Walker, the captain of a rival colored nine. But it can be worked up. Send for Boutwell.

Hanged for Murder

Philadelphia [PA] Inquirer, June 25, 1881
New Orleans, La., June 24.-A special from Holly Springs says, Wyatt Holmes, colored, was hanged within three miles of the court house here to-day, in the presence of about five thousand persons, for the murder of Andrew Scott, colored, last February. The condemned man ascended the scaffold with a firm step and complacent smile. He made a confession of his crime, and called upon all present to meet him in Heaven. At twelve o'clock the rope was adjusted and the trap sprung. His neck was broken by the fall, and in fifteen minutes his body was taken down and delivered to friends.

The Telegraph & Messenger, Macon GA, March 11, 1885
The successor of Senator Lamar is perhaps the strongest and most popular man in Mississippi. Gen. Walthal is a native of Richmond, Va. He was born in 1831, moved to Holly Springs, Miss., when a mere child, where he was raised, and after completing his education entered the profession of law. He was District Attorney of his judicial district, and being the only civil office ever held by him, and which he resigned to enter the Confederate army, in which, by his gallant bearing and superior merits, he rose step by step from first Lieutenant to Major General.

Death From a Negro's Bite

The Clarion [MS] Ledger, May 17, 1885
A very strange and very sad event occurred a few miles south of here in Mississippi a few days ago. Mr. Will Cannon, a gentleman about 24 years old, had a disagreement with a negro. They came to blows, and during the scuffle the negro bit Mr. Cannon's hand. Blood poisoning ensued and Mr. Cannon, it is said, will die if he is not already dead. Dr. Webb went from here with surgical instruments to amputate the arm. He found the arm mortified and the patient too weak to bear the shock. The negro is under arrest. It is said the negro has blue gums. It is also said that the bite of any negro who has blue gums is as fatal as that of a rattlesnake. Dr. Webb says this is a new theory to him, but one of the doctors from Holly Springs, who has attended the wounded man, says it is supported by one or two authentic cases that have occurred in the northern States. - Collierville, Tenn., Correspondence.

A Mississippi Sensation

Macon [GA] Weekly Telegraph & Messenger, September 4, 1885
New Orleans, August 29.-A Holly Springs, Miss., dispatch to the Picayune says: Bob Doxey and the widow of Wash Johnson were arrested in this county yesterday on suspicion of having entered into a conspiracy to poison Mrs. Doxey, the wife of Bob. Mrs. Doxey died two weeks ago under very suspicious circumstances and reports of foul play began to be whispered around the neighborhood. Doxey had already left his home, and Mrs. Johnson was preparing to leave when arrested. The matter is undergoing investigation at Bethlehem. Doxey is a nephew of the late Gen. T. C. Hindman, of Arkansas.

Hanged by a Mob

Macon [GA] Telegraph, October 22, 1885
Memphis, October 21.-A mob of 400 masked and armed men surrounded the jail at Holly Springs, Miss., before daylight this morning, overpowered the guard, broke open a cell, robbed it of a wife murdered and hanged him.

Summit County [OH] Beacon, October 28, 1885
Robert Doxey, wife murderer lynched at Holly Springs, Miss.

The Clarion [MS] Ledger, January 13, 1886
The residence of Mr. Peter Smith, near Holly Springs, was burned to the ground, with contents on Friday and his wife and little children, who were barefooted and thinly clad, suffered intensely from the cold.

The Clarion [MS], January 27, 1886
The last issue of the Holly Springs South contains the following marriage notices:

McAlexander-Smart - At the residence of Mr. Levi Smart, by Rev. E. D. Miller, at 10 o'clock, a. m., on January 13, 1886, Mr. Elbert E. McAlexander and Miss Lillie E. A. Smart.

McClatchy-Scruggs - At the residence of Mr. Marcus Scruggs, on January 13th, 1886, by Rev. Jas. Bowen, Dr. J. H. McClatchy, to Miss Fontaine Scruggs, all of this county.

McKinney-Wallace - At the residence of the bride's father, Mr. W. W. Wallace, in Benton county, Miss., on January 13th, 1886, by the Rev. E. D. Miller, Mr. Langdon McKinney to Miss Belle Wallace.

The Clarion [MS], March 24, 1886
The participants in a run a-way match at Austin, Texas, were Miss Mamie Clark, of Holly Springs, and Mrs. Charles Work, of Aberdeen.

The Clarion [MS], April 14, 1886
In the death of Dr. J. R. Dougherty, at Holly Springs, on Saturday, 10th inst., a good and useful man has gone to his rest. He was eighty-four years of age.

The Clarion [MS], May 19, 1886
Mrs. Rosa Davis, of Holly Springs, died on the 8th inst., aged 35 years.

The Clarion [MS], June 16, 1886
Mr. Robert Piram died in Holly Springs on the 6th inst.

Mr. J. P. Delay and Mrs. Tice, of Holly Springs, were married last week.

Mr. T. E. Moody and Miss Pinkey Morrison were married at Lamar, on 26th ult.

Last Wednesday evening, Col. Humphries, accompanied by his daughter Miss Mamie, Miss Lizzie Craft, of Holly Springs, Rev. Mr. McAlpine, and Mr. E. T. Moore, arrived in Macon. It had been arranged that the party would proceed the next day to the residence of Col. Oliver, the bride's grandfather, in Sumter, where the ceremony would take place, but an unfortunate accident befell the intended groom in being kicked in the side by a horse, and Col. H's physician advised him that a long trip in a vehicle over rough roads might be a serious mistake. So it was agreed that his friends should proceed to Sherman and inform the lady and her friends of the unfortunate situation. It was indeed sad news to the large party assembled, but there was no alternative but to have the marriage consummated in Macon. The party were detained in Alabama by the heavy rains until yesterday evening, but all were assembled in the parlor of the Dillard House last night at 8 o'clock and Col. Humphries and Miss Fannie Moore joined their hands in holy wedlock and the knot was tied by Rev. McAlpine. In addition to those mentioned above, there were also present Mr. T. Oliver and wife, Miss Annie D. Moore, Mrs. E. M. Wadson and Dudley Watson. - Macon Beacon.

The Clarion [MS], July 7, 1886
Miss Nettie Wooten, a society young lady of Holly Springs, was severely injured last week, in being thrown from a buggy.

The Clarion [MS], July 14, 1886
Dr. A. M. West was elected to the chair of chemistry in the Memphis Hospital College, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Prof. Fuhlen. Dr. West is a young Mississippian, and a son of Gen. A. M. West, of Holly Springs.

The Clarion [MS], August 4, 1886
Mr. Willie H. Jeffreys and Miss Carrie Brooks were married at Chulahoma on the 14th inst.

The Clarion [MS], July 21, 1886
Miss Lily McDowell, of Holly Springs, and Mr. Robert McDowell, of Dublin, the Secretary of the Board of Education for Ireland, were married at Epiphany Church, Washington D. C., on the morning of the 17th. A number of Mississippians having an official residence in Washington, witnessed the ceremony.

The Clarion [MS], August 4, 1886
Dr. F. W. Dancy, of Holly Springs, was quite seriously injured last week by being thrown from his buggy. His left collar bone was broken, and he was otherwise painfully bruised.

The Clarion [MS], September 8, 1886
Mrs. J. J. Goode died near Waterford last week.

The Clarion [MS], September 15, 1886
Judge A. M. Clayton, of Holly Springs, was seriously injured last week, by a fall from the steps of his residence. His right arm was broken.

The Clarion [MS], October 27, 1886
Mr. Hamilton C. Dinkins, of San Francisko[sic], Cal., and Mrs. Willie Tunsall, of Holly Springs, were married on the 19th inst., at the Presbyterian Church in Holly Springs.

The Clarion [MS], November 3, 1886
Mr. Ernest Rather, principal of the Wesson High School, died at the home of his father in Holly Springs, last week.

The Clarion [MS], December 29, 1886
In coupling an engine to a freight car at Holly Springs last Monday night, Mr. Lum Woolley, of Water Valley, was so unfortunate as to get his right foot slightly, and his left foot severely mashed.

The Clarion [MS], March 2, 1887
Memorial services in commemoration of the life of Bishop Green were held in Holly Springs last week.

The Clarion [MS], May 4, 1887
Some unknown person or persons entered St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Holly Springs recently, and tore down the statue of the virgin, broke it in pieces and tore the flowers away from the altar and threw sand over it.

The Clarion [MS], August 3, 1887
Gen. S. W. Featherston, of Holly Springs, has been quite sick of late, and has now gone to spend some weeks in the mountains of East Tennessee, hoping to regain his health and strength.

The Clarion [MS], September 14, 1887
The following was propounded to us by Capt. Sam Frank which he picked up in his recent travels: "Where does the Bible speak of the first banking transaction?" We leave the question with our readers to think over and reply to -- Holly Springs South.

The Clarion [MS], November 16, 1887
The many friends of Henry S. Falconer, Assistant Secretary of State during his brother Kinloch's term, will regret to learn that he was killed at Holly Springs on Sunday last by a freight train on the Kansas City, Memphis and Birmingham Railroad, of which he was conductor. He attempted to couple the train while in motion and slipped, and the wheels passed over and mashed his skull. He leaves a widow and several children.

The Clarion [MS] Ledger, February 21, 1889
Mr. J. O. Johnson and Miss Irene Walter were married at Holly Springs on Tuesday.

The Clarion [MS] Ledger, October 24, 1889

Tyro - J. F. Manning and Mattie Orr.

Holly Springs - A. H. Pegues and Lizzie Lumpkin

Tacoma [WA] Daily News, April 7, 1892
Enterprise is always to be admired, but Mrs. Smith, of Holly Springs, Miss., has rather overdone it. She has recently presented her husband with a bunch of six bouncing boys. They have been named Lee, Jackson, Van Dorn, Grant, Sherman and Buell Smith. This energy is wholly unnecessary in the Smith family.

Duel Didn't Occur

Grand Forks [ND] Daily Herald, May 7, 1893
Memphis, May 6. - The duel between Col. W. A. Collier, of the Appeal-Avalanche, and E. W. Carmack, of the Commercial, did not occur today as was anticipated. Owing to his arrest here Carmack did not arrive at Holly Springs, Miss., until an hour after the appointed time of the meeting. Col. Collier and his party were on board their train which was about Memphis when Carmack arrived on his special. A sheriff and several of his deputies were at the depot and fearing arrest all returned to Memphis, arriving at 6 p. m. In all probability further correspondence will be indulged in and a meeting arranged.

To Escape a Negro Mob's Wrath

Knoxville [TN] Journal, October 16, 1893
Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 15. - G. W. McKee, a member of the Mississippi legislature from Massall[sic] county, surrendered to the sheriff of Holly Springs today to escape the wrath of a mob of negroes, bent on lynching him. McKee shot and fatally wounded John Dean, a negro employed on his plantation in a difficulty yesterday. The shooting so enraged the negroes in the vicinity that they made a desperate attempt to hang McKee, but he escaped, made his way to Holly Springs and is now in jail.

Murdered a Minister

Grand Forks [ND] Daily Herald, March 3, 1894
Holly Springs, Miss., March 2. - News has been received here of the murder of the Rev. Stephen A. Wells, a Baptist minister, by William Gurley. The trouble between the two men commenced more than a year ago. Gurley cut Well's head open with an axe.

She Dreamed She Would Die

Daily Charlotte [NC] Observer, May 8, 1894
Memphis, Tenn., Dispatch, 5th.
The superstitious people of Holly Springs, Miss., are agitated over a remarkable occurrence there to-day. Miss Arbetta Echols, a member of one of the most prominent and wealthy families in Mississippi, was a pupil at the Malone Female College, and she was to have graduated to day. One week ago Miss Echols dreamed that she would die on Friday night, May 4th. In her dream she saw her chair in the graduating class, of which she was a member, draped in mourning. She told her friends about the peculiar dream, but no attention was paid to it. Last night she died and to-day her chair in he graduating class was draped in mourning precisely as seen in the dream.

Murdered His Brother

The State [SC], August 31, 1894
Holly Springs, Miss., Aug. 30.-A terrrible tragedy was enacted last evening at Stevenson's mill. David and Hayward Howell, brothers, had a dispute about a horse trade involving $15, when Hayward drew his pistol and shot David three times, mortally wounding him.

He Ran with Ben Butler in '84

The State [SC], October 1, 1894
Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 30.-Gen. A. M. West, candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1884 on the Greenback-Labor ticket, with Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, died at Holly Springs today. Gen. West was the first president of the Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans Railway, now the Illinois Central.

Biloxi [MS] Herald, August 10, 1895
At Potts Camp, Miss., on the night of the 31st, J. A. Catlin, a prominent local politician, shot and instantly killed Ed West, telegraph operator, who he thought was too slow in receiving a message which Catlin wanted to send off.

Blood Flows Down the Wall

Morning World-Herald [NE], September 6, 1895
Leads to a Ghastly Discovery in a Mississippi Court House
Holly Springs, Miss., Sept. 5.-While the supervisors were in session in the chancery clerk's office today they discovered blood running down the wall from the court room above. They rushed to the sheriff's office up stairs, and finding the door locked they broke it down. Sheriff Robert A. McWilliams had committed suicide. He lay prostrate upon the floor, weltering in his own blood. He had fastened a handcuff on his left hand and locked it to a table. He had also shackled his feet right together and then with his own razor cut his throat from ear to ear, severing every vein. The only cause assigned for Sheriff McWilliams' suicide is mental depression.

Biloxi [MS] Daily Herald, August 31, 1898
Dr. John McGuire has been sentenced to be hanged at Holly Springs, for a murder committed twenty-nine years ago.

Biloxi [MS] Daily Herald, December 31, 1898
At Holly Springs Thursday night St. Thomas Hall was totally destroyed by fire, all of the students escaping.

Biloxi [MS] Daily Herald, April 10, 1902
The board of supervisors of Marshall county have ordered that the execution of Charles Strickland be public, the execution to take place one mile from Holly Springs.

Biloxi [MS] Daily Herald, April 19, 1902
The case of Charles Strickland colored sentenced to hang at Holly Springs has been appealed to the supreme court.

Biloxi [MS] Herald, November 22, 1902
Holly Springs was selected by the synod at Columbus as the site for the presbyterian female college.

Fort Worth [TX] Telegram, January 15, 1903
Murdered in His Store
Memphis, Tenn., Jan. 15.-A special to the Scimitar from Holly Springs, Miss., says that O'Neil Jones was found murdered in his store near Victoria, Marshall county. Two unknown men were seen about the store and have since disappeared. Robbery is supposed to have been the motive for the crime.

Charlotte [NC] Daily Observer, July 1, 1903
Two Negroes Legally Hanged
Holly Springs, Miss., June 30.-Charles Strickland and Solomon Glassco, both negroes, were legally hanged here this morning. Both were convicted under murder charges.

Morning Herald [KY], January 18, 1904
Mt. Sterling, Jan. 27.-Announcement is made of the marriage of Robert VanArsdell, of this city, and Miss Margaret Dean Hadden, at Holly Springs, Tuesday, January 26.

Lexington [KY] Herald, June 25, 1905
Will Return to Home of His Youth
Shelbyville, Ky., June 24.-Captain George M. Buchanan, of Holly Springs, Miss., attended the Confederate reunion in Louisville last week, and while there concluded to run up to Shelbyville and see what changes had been made in the half-century that had passed since he had lived there. He was shown the Jim Hall place, contining[sic] 130 acres, and when priced to him at $120 cash per acre, he replied: "I will take it," and the deal was immediately closed. Captain Buchanan was Deputy Circuit Clerk under Hector A. Chinn, over fifty years ago, and is remembered by only a few of the older citizens.